Blockchain for Dummies

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It is highly possibly that you have heard the word ‘Blockchain’ over the past year. Even when we all have a tendency to have a vague concept about what it is, the truth is that most folks couldn’t give an explanation for why anybody talks approximately it in each innovation and era discussion board.This article summarizes the most important concepts to recognize Blockchain so you can participate in any verbal exchange approximately this depend without getting misplaced in the first sentence. Actually, this text will give you all of the facts you want to start wondering in your very own instances of use for Blockchain. You will learn what it’s far, and the way it works.


Before describing the Blockchain, we will start clarifying what is NOTBlockchain. Many people misunderstand the terms and concepts, leading to typical mistakes like the followings:

  • Blockchain is NOT a cryptocurrency.
“Blockchain is the tech. Bitcoin is merely the first mainstream manifestation of its potential.” — Marc Kenigsberg.
  • Blockchain is NOT a programming language.
  • Blockchain is NOT a cryptographic codification.
  • Blockchain is NOT an IA or Machine Learning technology.
  • Blockchain is NOT a Python library or framework.
  • If you thought that Blockchain corresponds to one of the previous ideas, do not worry. You will soon understand why you were wrong.


Blockchain is the name of an entire new technology. As the call states, it is a collection of blocks or groups of transactions that are chained together and disbursed most of the users.

“The blockchain is an incorruptible virtual ledger of economic transactions that may be programmed to document no longer simply financial transactions however surely everything of value.”– Don & Alex Tapscott.

In the give up, it works as an immutable report of transactions that do not require to rely upon an external authority to validate the authenticity and integrity of the information. Transactions are usually monetary, but we can shop any kind of information in the blocks.

Even while we name it ‘new generation’, its origins are frequent to date from 1991 while Scott and Stornetta posted “How to Time-Stamp a Digital Document” inside the Journal of Cryptography. However, it is now when its recognition has extended way to the success of Bitcoin and different cryptocurrencies.“Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” became published by using Satoshi Nakamoto returned in 2009, and the fee of the foreign money reached its highest historic maximum of $19,783.21 on Dec. 17, 2017. Since that moment, Blockchain has been inside the scope of absolutely everyone.

what is blockchain


The value of the Blockchain technology comes from the distributed security of the system. For this reason, there are several characteristics that are completely necessary for developing or using a Blockchain.

We describe the 5 key concepts that are the basis of the Blockchain technology as we know it up to the date, based on the SuperDataScience course for Blockchain:

  • Cryptographic Hash
  • Immutable Ledger
  • P2P Network
  • Consensus Protocol
  • Block Validation or ‘Mining’


A Hash is a cryptographic function that transforms any enter information into a set-period string of numbers. Every unmarried enter of the hash feature will produce a extraordinary output, and the end result is deterministic: if you use the equal input, the output fee can be continually the equal.

One of the maximum vital features of the Hash features is that the conversion is one-way: you cannot opposite the characteristic to generate the authentic input.

There are many algorithms to create specific Hash versions. You can take a look at how the SHA256 Hash algorithm works here. For each input, the set of rules generates a totally distinct output, and it isn’t possible to are expecting how will the enter modifications affect the output.

The Blockchain nodes use Hash features to create a completely unique identifier of any block of transactions. Every block consists of the Hash fee of the previous block.

Blockchain hash


This feature is tightly related to the previous one. Since every block of the chain contains the Hash of the previous one, it is not possible to modify any block without changing the entire chain. Hence, the chain works as an immutable digital ledger.

Let us see an example. We have the following chain, in which every block has been hashed and the hash is included in the following one:

Blockchain 5

If an anonymous attacker removes, adds or modifies any transaction in the first block, the HASH#1 will change:


HASH#1 is included as a part of the contents in Block 2. Because of that, HASH#2 will change too, and the error will propagate to every block of the chain after the block under attack. The user will then declare the chain invalid.



The Blockchain does not want any external or internal believe authority. This is viable due to the fact the Blockchain facts is sent amongst all the customers. Every person has its very own reproduction of the transactions and hashed blocks, and they unfold the data of any new transaction to the entire community. This way, it isn’t possible for anyone to modify the facts in the chain because it isn’t always saved by using an man or woman entity but for an entire community of node customers.

Once a block of transactions is demonstrated, it is added to the chain and every user replace their nearby data. Even if an attacker have been to modify your local chain, the community will not be given any block from the altered blockchain.


But what is the real blockchain? Users need to fulfill an agreement about the validity of the chain earlier than including more blocks.

Every time a node adds a new block, all of the customers need to validate the block by using using a commonplace protocol. Typically, the nodes attain a consensus about the correctness of a new block by Proof of Work or Proof of Stake strategies.

The nodes check that the new block meets the specifications of their Proof technique, which includes validation for all the transactions in the block. If the block is legitimate, they take into account it as a part of the Blockchain and preserve including new blocks.

In the case that one of a kind users have exceptional chains seemingly legitimate, they will discard the shorter one and pick the longest chain as the main Blockchain. As in any Byzantine Fault Torelance (BFT) device, they will meet an settlement approximately the appropriate chain while as a minimum 2/three of the total nodes aren’t malicious.


This feature is really no longer completely essential for a Blockchain, as we will see with examples like the CREDITS platform. However, is it likely one of the maximum well-known information about Blockchain thanks to the Bitcoin chain.

The time period ‘mining’ refers back to the act of assembly the Proof of Work necessities for adding a brand new block with pending transactions to the Blockchain. There are many different mining methods, as they’re custom defined for the chain.

The PoW technique commonly calls for the person to create a block with restrictions on its Hash code. Since the Hash code is unpredictable, the ‘miners’ have to check any possible mixture before assembly the necessities. These restrictions define the problem of the community.
Once a ‘miner’ node unearths the solution to the PoW problem, they upload the block to the chain and every other node test the validity of the PoW consistent with their Consensus Protocol. If the block is legitimate, they’ll encompass it on their very own nearby copies of the Blockchain.


Bockchain 8

The Blockchain era is permanently evolving. However, we will discover some key pillars to preserve the delivered fee of this generation.

The Blockchain allows users to create a dependable and immutable gadget for recording any sort of transaction or statistics. There isn’t any want for an outside or internal authority: every user is predicated at the era itself, following predefined rules to satisfy consensus and ensure the integrity and authenticity of the information.

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